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Automated border controls exist at Singapore Changi Airport Hindi: Lapangan Terbang Changi Singapura ; Malayalam: Similar facilities exist for motorcyclists at the border crossings with Malaysia. It provides visa exemptions and access to expedited border control facilities. ABTC holders are eligible for expedited border control at Canadian airports but not for any visa exemptions. Chinese citizens from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan are required to use special internal travel documents to enter the mainland.

Some countries maintain border controls within their own territory. These are not uncommon in some parts of Asia. For example, minority regions in India and China often require special permits i. In some cases, these restrictions are not limited to foreigners. For instance, certain minority areas of India additionally require Indian citizens to possess an Inner Line Permit to enter. Similarly, the Tibet Autonomous Region Tibetan: Within China, extensive border controls are maintained for those travelling between the mainland , special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau , and areas controlled by the Republic of China [l].

Foreign nationals need to present their passports or other types of travel documents when travelling between these areas. For Chinese nationals including those with British National Overseas status , there are special documents [o] for travel between these territories. Internal air and rail travel within non-autonomous portions of India and mainland China also generally requires travel documents to be checked by government officials as a form of interior border checkpoint.

For such travel within India, Indian citizens may utilise their Voter ID , National Identity Card , passport, or other proof of Indian citizenship whilst Nepali nationals may present any similar proof of Napali citizenship. Meanwhile, for such travel within mainland China, Chinese nationals from the mainland are required to use their national identity cards.

The most restrictive internal border controls west of the Pacific are in North Korea. Citizens are not allowed to travel outside their areas of residence without explicit authorisation, and access to the capital city of Pyongyang is heavily restricted. Another example is the Malaysian states of Sabah Tamil: Meanwhile in Bhutan, a microstate accessible by road only through India, there are interior border checkposts primarily on the Lateral Road and, additionally, certain areas require special permits to enter, whilst visitors not proceeding beyond the border city of Phuentsholing Dzongkha: Data page of a booklet type internal travel document issued by Taiwan authorities to a Mainland Chinese resident.

A sample of the Indian national identity card variant with Tamil as a regional language and English as the federal language , one of the documents that may be used to clear domestic controls at airports. Internal travel document for Chinese citizens of Hong Kong or Macau to enter the mainland. Malaysian entry stamps specify which jurisdictions i.

West or Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak the bearer is permitted to enter, and there are immigration checks when entering each. The Tibet Travel Permit, required to enter the Tibet Autonomous Region , is an example of internal border controls in minority regions of China and India. An example from Europe is the implementation of border controls on travel between Svalbard , which maintains a policy of free migration as a result of the Svalbard Treaty Norwegian: Свальбардский договор and the Schengen Area, which includes the rest of Norway.

Other examples of effective internal border controls in Europe include the closed cities Russian: Закрытое административно-территориальное образование of certain CIS members, areas of Turkmenistan that require special permits to enter, restrictions on travel to the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region Tajik: Горно-Бадахшанская автономная область , translit.

These are Greenland Greenlandic: Kalaallit Nunaat and the Faroe Islands Faroese: These areas do not maintain strict immigration controls with the Schengen Area, but border controls are sporadically enforced for customs purposes.

In addition to the numerous closed cities of Russia, [] parts of 19 subjects [p] of the Russian Federation are closed for foreigners without special permits and are consequently subject to internal border controls. An unusual example of internal border controls pertains to customs enforcement within the Schengen area.

Even though borders are generally invisible, the existence of areas within the Schengen area but outside the European Union Value Added Tax Area , as well as jurisdictions such as Andorra which are not officially a part of the Schengen area but can not be accessed without passing through it, has resulted in the existence of sporadic internal border controls for customs purposes.

Additionally, as per Schengen area rules [] , hotels and other types of commercial accommodation must register all foreign citizens, including citizens of other Schengen states, by requiring the completion of a registration form by their own hand. This does not apply to accompanying spouses and minor children or members of travel groups. In addition, a valid identification document has to be produced to the hotel manager or staff.

In response to the European migrant crisis , several countries set up internal controls. Another complex border control situation in Europe pertains to the United Kingdom. Whilst the crown dependencies are within the Common Travel Area , neither Gibraltar nor the sovereign British military exclaves of Akrotiri and Dhekelia are.

The former maintains its own border control policies , thus requiring physical border security at its border with the Schengen Area as well as the implementation of border controls for travellers proceeding directly between Gibraltar and the British mainland.

The latter maintains a relatively open border with Southern Cyprus, though not with Northern Cyprus. Consequently it is a de facto member of the Schengen Area and travel to or from the British mainland requires border controls. They have been in place in some form or another since the end of The Troubles. Israeli checkpoint outside the Palestinian city of Ramallah. Central entry checkpoint to the closed city of Seversk , Tomsk Oblast, Russia. Border post between France and Andorra, a microstate that de facto follows Schengen immigration policies and utilises the Euro as its national currency yet is not a part of the European Union VAT and customs areas.

The Italy-Switzerland border is an internal Schengen border, but as seen at this border crossing at Chiasso , there are border control facilities since Switzerland maintains its own customs and tax area. The red lines indicate temporary internal border controls within the Schengen Area. The blue area represents members of the Schengen area, the green area represents European Union members not in the Schengen Area, and the grey area represents the rest of western Europe.

Multiple types of internal border controls exist in America. Each of these territories maintains its own visa exemptions, and there are consequently immigration and customs checks on travel between the these territories and the American mainland. As a result, there are no immigration checks between the two but there travellers arriving in Puerto Rico or the American mainland directly from the Virgin Islands are subject to border control for customs inspection.

America also maintains interior checkpoints , similar to those maintained by Bhutan, along its borders with Mexico and Canada, subjecting people to border controls even after they have entered the country. The city of Hyder, Alaska has also been subject to internal border controls since the United States chose to stop regulating arrivals in Hyder from British Columbia.

Since travellers exiting Hyder into British Columbia are subject to Canadian border controls, it is theoretically possible for someone to accidentally enter Hyder from Canada without their travel documents and then to face difficulties since both America and Canada would subject them to border controls that require travel documents.

The Cook Islands further maintain a separate nationality law. Additionally, border controls for Tokelau are complicated by the fact that the territory is, for the most part, only accessible via Samoa.

The American government operates border preclearance facilities at a number of ports and airports in foreign territory. They are staffed and operated by U. Customs and Border Protection officers. Travelers pass through U. Immigration and Customs , Public Health , and Agriculture inspections before boarding their aircraft , ship , or train. This process is intended to streamline border procedures, reduce congestion at ports of entry, and facilitate travel between the preclearance location and U.

These facilities are present at the majority of major Canadian airports, as well as selected airports in Bermuda, Aruba, the Bahamas, Abu Dhabi [] and Ireland. A preclearance facility is currently being planned at Dubai International Airport [] Arabic: Citizens of the Bahamas who enter America through either of the two preclearance facilities in that country enjoy an exemption from the general requirement to hold a visa as long as they can sufficiently prove that theydo not have a significant criminal record in either the Bahamas or America.

All Bahamians applying for admission at a port-of-entry other than the pre-clearance facilities located in Nassau or Freeport International airports are required to be in possession of a valid visa. It is located in the Chinese mainland on land leased from the city of Shenzhen in Guangdong province. It essentially enables travellers to clear both mainland and Hong Kong border controls in one place, thus eliminating any need for border control on the Hong Kong side of the Shenzhen Bay Bridge Chinese: Singaporean exit and Malaysian entry preclearance border controls are co-located at the Woodlands Train Checkpoint , whilst Malaysian exit controls are located separately at Johor Bahru.

The upcoming Rapid Transit System Malay: French entry border control for ferries between Dover and Calais or Dunkerque take place at the Port of Dover , whilst French exit and British entry border control takes place at Calais and Dunkerque. Border control for rail travel between the United Kingdom and the Schengen Area features significant prescreening. This includes customs and immigration prescreening on both sides of the Eurotunnel , and immigration-only prescreening for the Eurostar between the United Kingdom and stations located in Belgium and France.

Eurostar and Eurotunnel passengers departing from the Schengen area go through both French or Belgian exit border control and British entry border controls before departures, while passengers departing from the United Kingdom undergo French border controls on British soil.

Such controls can take effect in one country based on the law of another country without any formalised border control prescreening agreement in force. The most prominent example is airlines which check passports and visa before passengers are allowed to board the aircraft.

Also for some passenger boats such check are performed before boarding. Border controls are usually the responsibility of specialised government organisations. Such agencies may oversee various aspects of border control, such as customs , immigration policy, border security, quarantine , and other such aspects. Official designations, jurisdictions and command structures of these agencies vary considerably, and some countries split border control functions across multiple agencies.

It is one of the five Central Armed Police Forces of the Union of India, it was raised in the wake of the War on 1 December , "for ensuring the security of the borders of India and for matters connected there with". Consequently, enforcing border controls is a challenge for all three countries, and porous sections of the border between India and Myanmar have historically been common since Myanmar was formerly a part of the British Indian Empire.

The ITBP, which started with 4 battalions, has since restructuring in has undergone expansion to a force of 56 battalions as of with a sanctioned strength of 89, The Immigration and Checkpoints Authority Hindi: Penguasa Imigresen dan Pusat Pemeriksaan ; Chinese: In addition, ICA handles anti-terrorism operations and is responsible for many visa and residence related aspects of border control.

The Directorate General of Immigration Indonesian: Direktorat Jenderal Imigrasi is the primary agency tasked with border control in Indonesia. The Immigration Department of Malaysia Malay: The minister will work closely with the Minister of Public Safety in relation to the administration of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act.

Border Security Command Korean: It also considers applications from foreign nationals seeking British citizenship. The Border Force is in charge [s] of physical controls and checkpoints at airports, land borders, and ports. Since 1 March , Border Force has been a law-enforcement command within the Home Office, accountable directly to ministers. Border Force is responsible for immigration and customs at rail, air and sea ports in the UK and western Europe, as well as thousands of smaller airstrips, ports and marinas.

Immigration Enforcement is the organisation responsible for enforcing border control policies within the United Kingdom, including pursuing and removing unlawfully present immigrants. Departamento de Seguridad Nacional. It has its headquarters in Washington, D. The Transport Security Administration Spanish: For passengers departing by air from America, TSA screening is the only physical check conducted upon departure.

Immigration and Customs Enforcement Spanish: Immigration and Nationality Act Section g allows ICE to enter into agreements with state and local law enforcement agencies, permitting designated officers to perform immigration law enforcement functions, pursuant to a Memorandum of Agreement MOA , provided that the local law enforcement officers receive appropriate training and function under the supervision of sworn U.

Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers. Under g , ICE provides state and local law enforcement with the training and subsequent authorisation to identify, process, and when appropriate, detain immigration offenders they encounter during their regular, daily law-enforcement activity.

The forces operate under their own separate chains of command and wear distinct uniforms. Most famously each evening, the Pakistan Rangers- Punjab together with their Indian counterparts in the BSF, participate in an elaborate flag lowering ceremony at Wagah border crossing near Lahore.

The Frontier Corps , is an umbrella term for the two western provincial auxiliary forces part of the paramilitary forces of Pakistan along the western provinces of Balochistan Balochi: The Frontier Corps comprises two separate organisations: Each subdivision is headed by a seconded inspector general , who is a Pakistan Army officer of at least major-general rank, although the force itself is under the jurisdiction of the Interior Ministry.

Customs-related border security measures in Pakistan are the responsibility of Pakistan Customs. Frontex [] [] from French: According to the European Council on Refugees and Exiles ECRE and the British Refugee Council , in written evidence submitted to the UK House of Lords inquiry, Frontex fails to demonstrate adequate consideration of international and European asylum and human rights law including the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and EU law in respect of access to asylum and the prohibition of refoulement.

For this repatriation, a uniform European travel document would ensure wider acceptance by third countries. It is this latter proposed capability, to be able to deploy specialists to member states borders without the approval [u] of the national government in question that is proving the most controversial aspect of this European Commission plan. The agency acts as a coast guard , border guard , sea rescue organisation and a customs service. The Finnish Border Guard Finnish: The Finland-Russia border is a controlled external border of the Schengen Area, routinely patrolled and protected by a border zone enforced by the Border Guard.

There are two coast guard districts for patrolling maritime borders. In peacetime, the Border Guard trains special forces and light infantry and can be incorporated fully or in part into the Finnish Defence Forces when required by defence readiness.

The Border Guard has police and investigative powers in immigration matters and can independently investigate immigration violations. The Guard operates SAR helicopters that are often used in inland SAR, in assistance of a local fire and rescue department or other authorities.

The Border Guard shares border control duties with Finnish Customs, which inspects arriving goods, and the Finnish Police , which enforces immigration decisions such as removal.

In addition, visa-free entry acceptance regulations into Hong Kong for passport holders of some countries remain unchanged before and after The Immigration Department of Macau Chinese: Customs related border controls are largely within the purview of the General Administration of Customs Chinese: The agency is headed by the Director General. The current Director-General is Hsieh Li-kung. The agency was established in early and its job includes the care and guidance of new immigrants, exit and entry control, the inspection on illegal immigrants , the forcible deportation of unlawful entrants, and the prevention of trafficking in persons.

Immigration law refers to the national statutes , regulations , and legal precedents governing immigration into and deportation from a country. Strictly speaking, it is distinct from other matters such as naturalisation and citizenship , although they are often conflated. Immigration laws vary around the world, as well as according to the social and political climate of the times, as acceptance of immigrants sways from the widely inclusive to the deeply nationalist and isolationist.

Countries frequently maintain laws which regulate both the rights of entry and exit as well as internal rights, such as the duration of stay, freedom of movement , and the right to participate in commerce or government.

National laws regarding the immigration of citizens of that country are regulated by international law. This section is an attempt to classify and bring together information about immigration legislation on a number of countries with high immigration.

Some commonwealth citizens have right of abode in the UK, which for most practical purposes gives them the same rights as British Citizens in the UK. Certain border control policies of various countries have been the subject of controversy and public debate. Immigrant investor programmes, pejoratively referred to as golden visas, are border control policies designed to attract foreign capital and business people by providing the right of residence and citizenship in return.

These are also known as citizenship-by-investment programmes. While several countries currently offer investors citizenship or residence in return for an economic investment, the concept is relatively new and was only brought to the focus [ clarification needed ] around Immigrant investor programmes usually have multiple criteria that must be fulfilled for the investment to qualify, often pertaining to job creation, purchasing of real estate, non-refundable contributions or specific targeted industries.

It is more often more about making an economic contribution than just an investment. There is an annual cap of 10, applications under the EB-5 arrangement. Some countries such as Malta and Cyprus also offer citizenship "so-called golden passports " to individuals if they invest a certain sum. The current investment threshold is , EUR for the purchase or long term lease of property.

This arrangement offers a permanent residence permit and free entry to the EU and Schengen Area to aliens, as long as they retain ownership of the investment property. Applicants are subject to a thorough due diligence process which guarantees that only reputable applicants acquire Maltese citizenship.

Moreover, applications from countries where international sanctions apply may not be accepted. Applications from a particular country can also be excluded on the basis of a Government policy decision.

Applicants with an intermediate-advanced knowledge of French are not subject to the cap, and may apply at any time. The issuing of so-called golden visas has sparked controversy in several countries. A lack of demonstrable economic benefits, and security concerns, have been among the most common criticisms of golden visas.

In the Canadian government suspended their golden visa programme although, as of , Quebec maintains their own golden visa programme.

Since the implementation of added security measures in the aftermath of the World Trade Centre attacks , reports of discrimination against people perceived to be Muslim by American border security officers have been prevalent in the media. Starting primarily in the s, the Bhutanese government implemented strict restrictions on Nepali residents and implemented internal border control policies to restrict immigration or return of ethnic Nepalis.

This policy shift effectively ended previously liberal immigration policies with regards to Nepalis and counts amongst the most racialised border control policies in Asia.

In April , as part of its " zero tolerance " policy, the American government ordered the separation of the children of refugees and asylum seekers from their parents Spanish: As a consequence of popular outrage, [v] , and criticism from the medical [w] and religious [x] communities, the policy was put on hold by an executive order signed by President Trump on 20 June Under the policy, federal authorities separated children from their parents, relatives, or other adults who accompanied them in crossing the border, whether apprehended during an illegal crossing or, in numerous reported cases, legally presenting themselves for asylum.

Regardless, members of both parties criticised the policy and detractors of the Trump administration emphasise the fact there does not seem to be any written law that required the government to implement such a policy. The costs of separating migrant children from their parents and keeping them in "tent cities" are higher than keeping them with their parents in detention centres. Beginning in , Australia implemented border control policies featuring the detention of asylum seekers and economic migrants who arrived unlawfully by boat in nearby islands in the Pacific.

These policies are controversial and in the Supreme Court of Papua New Guinea declared the detention centre at Manus Island to be unconstitutional. China does not currently recognise North Korean defectors as refugees and subjects them to immediate deportation if caught. This aspect of Chinese border control policy has been criticised by human rights organisations. House on Chaamseweg street in Baarle, village that is divided between Belgium and Netherlands. State border is marked by the line of white plates on the sidewalk.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Immigration policy. For other uses, see Border Crossing. Cover of a biometric British National Overseas passport. Cover of a biometric passport issued to a full British Citizen. Travel document and Passport. Argentinian National ID card valid for travel to other Mercosur countries in lieu of a passport.

Electronic Travel Authorization Sri Lanka. Electronic Travel Authority Australia. India and China, like most countries, implement border controls at both entry and exit, and consequently stamp passports upon exit. Central America-4 Border Control Agreement.

Commonwealth of Independent States. Union State of Russia and Belarus. Schengen Area and Common Travel Area. Sign often found at crossings from the Republic of Ireland into the North. Open Schengen Area border crossing at the Swiss-Lichtenstein border. Full members of the scheme. Transitional members United States, Canada.

Visa policy of New Zealand. Realm of New Zealand. United States border preclearance. Shenzhen Bay Control Point. Immigration and Checkpoints Authority. Directorate General of Immigration Indonesia. Canada Border Services Agency. Canadian Air Transport Security Authority. UK Visas and Immigration. Customs and Border Protection. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Immigration Department Hong Kong.

Citizenship of the European Union. Lhotshampa and Bhutanese refugees. Cyclepath on the border of The Netherlands cyclepath and Germany gravelroad. But the purpose of the law since , and the manner in which it is implemented, make sure that ethnic origin is in fact and in practice a deciding factor. The committee criticised the arrangements of the BN O nationality under "Principal subjects of concern": It is, however, a matter of concern that such status does not grant the bearer the right of abode in the United Kingdom and contrasts with the full citizenship status conferred upon a predominantly white population living in another dependent territory.

It is noted that most of the persons holding BNO or BOC status are Asians and that judgements on applications for citizenship appear to vary according to the country of origin, which leads to the assumption that this practice reveals elements of racial discrimination.

I represent most of all those who live here to firmly request and demand you to grant us the right to full British citizenship so that we can, if we so wish, live in the United Kingdom , our Motherland I say to you that the right of abode in the United Kingdom is the best and the only definitive guarantee With your failure to give us such a guarantee, reluctant as I may, I must advise the people of Hong Kong, and urgently now, each to seek for themselves a home of last resort even if they have to leave to do so.

I do so because, as a legislator, my duty is with the people first and the stability and prosperity of Hong Kong second, although the two are so interdependent on each other They were not deprived of their right of abode after the transfer of sovereignty of Macau in , their Portuguese passports and citizenship are valid and inheritable, and it turned out that many of them still choose to stay in Macau.

In reality, they had no economic infrastructure worth mentioning and with few exceptions encompassed swaths of disconnected territory. This meant all the Bantustans were little more than puppet states controlled by South Africa. Throughout the existence of the independent Bantustans, South Africa remained the only country to recognise their independence. Nevertheless, internal organisations of many countries, as well as the South African government, lobbied for their recognition.

For example, upon the foundation of Transkei, the Swiss-South African Association encouraged the Swiss government to recognise the new state. In , leading up to a United States House of Representatives resolution urging the President to not recognise Transkei, the South African government intensely lobbied lawmakers to oppose the bill. While the bill fell short of its needed two-thirds vote, a simple majority of lawmakers nevertheless supported the resolution.

Also known as the natives law, pass laws severely limited the movements of not only blacks, but other peoples as well e. Asians by requiring them to carry pass books when outside their homelands or designated areas.

Before the s, this legislation largely applied to African men, and attempts to apply it to women in the s and s were met with significant protests. The first internal passports in South Africa were introduced on 27 June by the Earl Macartney in an attempt to prevent natives from entering the Cape Colony. Those entering a "labour district" needed a special pass which entitled them to remain for three days.

Anyone found without a pass would be arrested immediately and sent to a rural area. It was replaced in by the Natives Urban Areas Consolidation Act, which imposed "influx control" on black men, and also set up guidelines for removing people deemed to be living idle lives from urban areas. I knew that this community can do wonders for my country and they have been doing it for last many decades. The treaty regulates the demilitarisation of the archipelago.

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He received the Right Livelihood Award in for designing and successfully implementing a biological control programme to prevent the outbreak of a new pest threatening the cassava root in Africa. Ben Herson is the founder and creative director of Nomadic Wax — a fair trade music, film and events production company. Ben is also an educator with ten years of classroom experience in public and private schools and lectures regularly at institutions of higher learning.

In , Ben co-founded the Trinity International Hip-Hop festival, the first international hip-hop festival in the United States, and began touring to colleges and universities throughout the United States.

In , he developed an award-winning seven part documentary series on youth, hip-hop, and politics in West Africa titled "African Underground: Democracy in Dakar", which was screened at film festivals and theatres internationally.

Ben holds a B. He has reported on coca growers in Bolivia, the crisis in Argentina, the new evangelical movements in Brazil and the history of the dictatorships in the Condor Plan countries. Her work has been published by dpa, Spiegel Online, Deutsche Welle and tageszeitung. She writes mainly about the democratization of the former military dictatorship. He is an Ashoka Fellow, a keen gardener and one of the founders of New Lion Brewery in Totnes and a Director of Atmos Totnes, a very ambitious community-led development project.

He tweets as robintransition. He was part of a team awarded two Pulitzer Prizes for newspaper coverage of the hurricane and has been interviewed on most major television and radio news shows. Annabelle Houdret works as Senior Project Manager at adelphi. Her research and consulting activities focus on water and other natural resources as well as on development and security with particular emphasis on water conflicts and policies in the MENA region, Africa and Europe.

He is interested in issues of infrastructure, sport and development. From to he was employed at Phoenix, Bonn. Currently he works as a freelance and online journalist. He published various studies on value chains on different products including chocolate, mobile phones and cars. Additionally he took part in multi-stakeholder conferences and is member of the advisory boards.

She is currently working as a reporter for Radio Azadio Radio Liberty in Kabul, Afghanistan and as a freelance reporter for the blog Afghanistan Today. Fawzia Ihsan is a freelance journalist for the online magazine"Afghanistan Today", which publishes reports of 15 journalists, photographers and film-makers from all over Afghanistan.

She holds Masters degrees in Business management and Economics. Her fields of research include assessing the contributions of businesses towards sustainable development and corporate sustainability management. Before becoming a researcher she worked for a regional economic development company in Germany.

Kyle James is an American journalist, editor and media trainer. He also works in media development and has extensive training experience in Asia, calling Cambodia home for several years. She plays for the Diyar Club from the city of Bethlehem, where she also serves as a trainer and sports coordinator. She joined the club when it was founded in , and has played as a defender for the national team ever since. Timothy Jenkin is a writer and long-time political activist.

He lived in exile in the UK from until when he returned to South Africa after the unbanning of political organisations. During this period he worked as a writer and trained activists for the ANC underground. His research focus is on international economic relations and governance. Brendon Johnson is a co-founder of the Baladini project. He has experience working in all aspects of the social entrepreneurship field for over 10 years. Previously to Baladini, Brendon worked with the Nile Project, an organization that employs music, education, and social innovation programs to promote transboundary peace.

Before that, he worked with the Egyptian-based incubator Nahdet el Mahrousa where he consulted with over 25 social enterprises and nonprofits on issues of financial sustainability and strategic planning. He has also worked with Fortune companies in developing socially-responsible programing for emerging markets. In , Brendon founded, built, and managed the grassroots organization Aid to South Africa. Selina Juul has published a leftovers cookbook, written over 80 articles on food waste among them with two ministers and is a speaker at many international conferences, among them TEDxCopenhagen.

Bijan Kafi worked for non-profit organizations and social entreprises in Georgia, Egypt and other African countries. He writes on topics as civic chance in developing countries and the influence of modern technologies on this chance. She is in charge of programmes on environment and disaster prevention. She is a lecturer at the University of Hull and published widely on economic and political issue, especially related to cyber conflict.

Sina Kamala Kaufmann is the author of Politik im Web, which looks at the social and political impacts of digital and technological progress. At the moment she researches and writes about utopian futures and works as a freelance communications specialist for tech companies and development organizations.

Camino Kavanagh is currently pursuing a Ph. Her research is centred on transformation in strategic affairs, with a specific focus on how cyberspace has evolved into a domain of strategic competition between states and she engages in different initiatives and projects on this subject. He has been a visiting researcher at The Edmund A. Hammaad has also worked as a journalist for two of the leading English language newspapers in Pakistan, "The News International" and "Daily Dawn".

Emmie Kio works with Plan International Kenya, an organization that focuses on ensuring children rights are realized in societies all over the world. Besides, she is a an agriculture crusader, a change agent and a trained social reporter using social media to inform about the benefits of agriculture in bridging the unemployment gap for youths in Kenya. Olga worked as freelance translator, interpreter and contributor for the New York based lifestyle and culture magazine Jing Daily.

Volker Kitz studied law in Cologne and New York and is an active member of the bar. For years he worked as a successful lobbyist for companies in the media. Many current laws are based in part on his influence.

Today he lives in Munich as an author and teaches the art of persuasion. She was chief editor of Digital Development Debates from to She carried out several studies about CSR and partnerships. The story of a liberation, available only in German , published by Campus Verlag in He holds a degree in law and social sciences from Frankfurt University.

He received his doctoral degree from Frankfurt University as well and qualified as a professor at Kassel University, Germany, with a habilitation treatise on "water and society". Her interests are in ICT for development, media studies and journalism. She gathered her first hands-on experience in the development context as a guest teacher in Indonesia and worked with the German broadcaster WDR.

Prior to joining the ICC, she spent 12 years as a state and federal prosecutor in Germany. Since , she is a member of the judiciary examining board of the Land Saxony-Anhalt for state examinations. Petra Kneuer participated in the Minds for Change conference: Minds for Change conference Video statement by Petra Kneuer: Tobias Knobloch worked in IT business for several years, then wrote a doctoral thesis on thought experiments and computer simulations.

After that he worked as a political consultant and co-founded a social software startup. Spare time is filled with family and discussions about the chances and risks of digitization. Alice is a freelance journalist and translator. Andrea Kolb is an experienced marketing expert and social entrepreneur. She studied economics and cultural management.

After having worked for different agencies in Frankfurt, London and Monaco, she founded the agency "Calliope-inspiring brand communicaton" in Munich in In she moved to Berlin. Under the positioning of "Beyond Fashion", ABURY combines the desire for style and ethics, exclusiveness and sustainability in a unique and innovative concept.

Wolfgang Kraushaar, born in , holds a Ph. He worked at the Didactics Centre at Frankfurt University from to , completed his dissertation on structural changes at German universities in , and has worked at the Hamburg Institute for Social Research since His research focuses on protest movements and modern terrorism. Dr Kraushaar was a guest professor at Beijing Normal University in He is currently working on a monograph entitled "Nacktprotest! Zwischen Zivilisationsgewinn und Schamverlust" Naked Protest!

Between civilisational progress and a loss of shame. Stefan Kreutzberger, born in , has a degree in political science and works as a freelance journalist, author and media consultant in Cologne. His work focuses on environmental and consumer issues along with development policy. He is the author of the book "Die Essensvernichter" lit.: He recently partnered with an association to found the "Foodsharing" project, an online platform where people can exchange their leftover food.

Matthias Kroll is economist and participated in founding a consulting organisation in environmental management and got his doctorate in monetary theory and policy. He intensively explores how state spending could be financed by the central bank through money creation without causing inflation.

Her main area of reserch is water ressources and land use, and she coordinates the CuveWater project. Rahul Kumar is a Delhi-based development journalist. He writes about and photographs issues related to NGOs, the environment, development and urban affairs.

He has undergone training with Radio Nederlands Wereldomroep and is currently working with an international non-profit organisation.

Anthony Langat is a freelance journalist based in Kenya reporting on human rights issues, governance, security and climate change. Additional roles over the course of her career: Peter Lanzet is a social scientist and works as development officer for the Church Development Service in Bonn Evengelischer Entwicklungsdienst — EED for the "development finance and debt relief ". He has a broad expertise in the field of fan work. Currently her work focuses on biodiversity governance by indigenous peoples and local communities, and on access to genetic resources, traditional knowledge and benefit sharing.

Jure Leko studied ethnology, sociology, and geography at the University of Bonn. He obtained his Master of Arts in , and was later awarded a doctoral thesis stipend by the University of Bonn. He was subsequently employed as a researcher at the Institute for Political Science and Sociology.

The Special Adviser leads and coordinates the efforts of the United Nations system to promote understanding and support for sport as aninstrument for development and peace, and encourages dialogue, collaboration and partnerships in this area. Willi Lemke has over 25 years of professional experience in both sport and politics. Throughout his career he has been a dedicated advocate for the importance of sport in education and society.

He notably engaged in fundraising, the initiation and facilitation of various international relief projects. Markos Lemma is specialised in ICT and innovation management consultancy. He is a co-founder of the iceaddis innovation hubs network in Ethiopia. Markos has been working for GIZ since as a technical advisor and ran the ePrivateSector Development project until as a project coordinator.

He is a blogger and GlobalVoices author. He speaks in different conferences about innovation hubs, tech communities, mobile technology, social media and blogging. He also organises different tech events in Addis Ababa. He works in political education, journalism and activism where his central focus is on the sociology of religion, post-colonialism and universal basic income. In recent years, he has been working as a consultant for private companies as well as non-profit organisations.

He has written extensively on the Swat Pukhtun and on the Middle East. Other topics include authenticity, radical social movements, American culture, charisma, psychological anthropology, belief, and emotion. His thesis was about social entrepreneurship at the base of the pyramid. Previously he studied philosophy, linguistics and business administration at the University of Stuttgart. In he joined the Hamburg Foundation for Business Ethics as a project manager for educational projects.

In he launched Glovico. Lisa Ma is a speculative designer and researcher. She specialises in combining the fringe, ethnographic research process and public perception to produce unusual platforms of engagement. She is most recently a global shaper for the World Economic Forum. For the "Farmification" project, Lisa Ma stayed in a joystick factory in Shenzhen, China and dived into the intimate lives of migrant workers.

After observing how the vertiginous waves of production renewal have pushed the workers to the fringes, she created a part-time farming scheme where the migrant community combine farming with manufacturing to act as a buffer between innovation cycles. His main areas of work are the interlinkages and between natural resources, violent conflict and peace on all levels of society.

He studied political science, sociology, history and economics at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main. Barbara Mabanza is the founder of KrauseLocke. After interning with the Development Policy Forum of GIZ in Berlin she is currently conducting field research for her master thesis on real estate markets in Brazil and the formalization processes in the Favelas of Rio de Janeiro. His recent projects include documentaries about indigenous people as well as music videos.

Julia Manske is a researcher at the Stiftung Neue Verantwortung, a Berlin based think tank, where she works at the intersection of digital policies and global development. Julia is also a research affiliate with Data-Pop Alliance, a global alliance on data and development co-created by various academic institutions such as the MIT Media Lab. Alvin Marcelo studied to be a general and trauma surgeon and currently heads the University of the Philippines Manila National Telehealth Center.

He received a PhD from the University of Oldenburg in for his doctoral thesis: Helen was previously a researcher in medical molecular biology, holding positions in Manchester, Cologne and Aachen. Jens Martens has been director of the European office of Global Policy Forum since its foundation in late He was a member of the Coordinating Committee of Social Watch. He teaches the history of the mafia in different universities in Central America.

He has travelled extensively throughout Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica identifying the characteristics of the ritualistic violence produced by Mexican organized crime organizations.

Ahmad Masour is a psychologist, community coach and author. Ahmad has been living in Germany for eight years now. He specialises in topics such as integration, radicalisation, racism, anti-Semitism and pedagogy for migrant families.

In Israel, Ahmad has worked for several youth projects promoting peaceful relations between Jews and Arabs. Ahmad studied psychology, sociology and philosophy at University of Tel Aviv and clinical psychology at the Humboldt University Berlin as a Goethe Institute fellow. His works have been displayed in more shared exhibitions, 80 individual exhibitions in 51 countries. He is author of nine books with photographic essays.

She worked in America Latina and Albania in rural participatory appraisal for development projects. She has been coordinating the strengthening of the ILC Latin America platform composed by land-concerned organizations and the expansion of the global Land Reporting Initiative. Annalisa is a citizen of Italy where she earned her master in Sustainable Project Planning and her university degree in Tropical Agriculture at the University of Florence.

As Prime Minister of Niger, Ibrahim Assane Mayaki played a catalyst role in enhancing the social dialogue in the country. He initiated the creation of relevant technical committees in charge of the negotiations with social partners. Next to his political career Mayaki has been professor in Niger, Venezuela and Paris. Morrigan McCarthy is a documentary photographer and writer currently circumnavigating the world to document the daily lives of twenty-somethings. From until he worked in a research project on seed systems in Tanzania and Namibia.

His areas of expertise are development studies, social transformation of smallholder livelihoods in Sub-Sahara Africa as well as qualitative research methods. As a freelance consultant, Jonas did research in various fields, for example on social and economic causes of malnutrition in Malawi and on ageing society in Germany. Before, she worked for Skateistan in Kambodia and Afghanistan. Before joining Human Rights Watch, Michalski worked in journalism for more than 20 years, specializing in news and current affairs.

In his position, Michalski will work towards giving Germany a stronger voice in support of human rights. Michalski graduated from Hamburg University, where he studied history and politics. He holds a degree in science of forestry. His research lines include secular trends and biological and socioeconomic determinants of nutritional deficiencies and obesity, food processing in the food system and human health, and food and nutrition programs and policies evaluation.

He conducted field research and project evaluations in several countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. His research focuses on transnational security governance and violence with a regional focus on Latin America. His most recent publications include: Ross Murphy, 23, is a Rockstar Youth mentee. He launched the first ever Green Deal comparison business:. Kageni Muse is a journalist based in Nairobi. She is passionate about empowerment, travel, faith and families. Basse Mutahi is an online journalist in Kenya working in the digital division of Nation Media Group, the leading media house in the East African region.

Fighting for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex LGBTI people in Uganda, Kasha Jacqueline Nabagesera is one of the most courageous and outspoken human rights activists in Africa. Operating within a hostile and repressive environment, Nabagesera has shed light on human rights violations, and has successfully used the judicial system to advance LGBTI rights. She has overcome threats to campaign against repressive laws and uses a range of creative and innovative tools to continue breaking myths and stereotypes surrounding LGBTI people in Uganda and elsewhere.

Leila Nachawati is a Spanish-Syrian communication strategist and human rights activist with a special focus on the Middle East and North Africa.

She writes for several media like El Mundo, Eldiario. Follow her on Twitter:. She is based in Kampala, Uganda. Reema oversees self help groups SHG , co-operatives and 15 federations totaling , members. She negotiated the first ever IFAD loan to rebuild lives of 60, earthquake affected rural women and is running post conflict reconstruction for 40, members affected by riots.

She is leading a rehabilitation programme in Afghanistan and in Srilanka and a vocational training in agro and rural livelihood security; she is expanding activities of the Trade Facilitation Centre and heads the ICT cell to connect technological information with the farm women.

Reema Nanavaty initiated the food security covering one million households through its rural distribution network, named RUDI, where women farmers and labour trade their agro-produce with each other.

Furthermore, Reema is spearheading the Hariyali—Green Energy and Livelihoods Initiative to provide 2,00, mostly farm women access renewable energy tools of cookstoves and solar lights. Anirudh Narla is a tech startup enthusiast who did his bachelors in Computer Engineering and Entrepreneurship in Singapore and is currently helping Entrepreneurs in Ghana build their billion-dollar company.

During his free time he is seeking out new adventures, travelling and trying his hands at photography. Lundquist Neubauer is a sociologist and media scientist who works as a public relations manager. Since , Ampion has organised venture buses through 15 African countries, bringing young African and international entrepreneurs in contact with potential investors.

To date Ampion has helped create over 30 new companies. International start-up founders can register for the Ampion bus programme at. There she built up and managed different units. As Senior Consultant she looked after clients in finance, health, tourism and mobility. Beforehand she ran her own brand communications agency. She took over the management of the media and communications department in the WFC head office in January Charles Newman is a trained architect and has worked across numerous regions of East Africa.

Susanne Nickel works as a freelance journalist and for the Deutsche Welle in Bonn. She is responsible for online editing and press and public relations as part of the preparations for the Global Media Forum. Since she has run her own journalist agency sun media. Susanne Nickel has also worked for a number of radio stations, government administrations and institutions in the German state of North Rhine—Westphalia, and the federal government in Berlin. The sun media agency offers a range of services including website development, print media design of all kinds, and concept development for public relations.

Susanne Nickel specializes in the environmental sector with a focus on sustainable development in particular. Elizabeth Norman is a freelance writer and regular correspondent for the organisation Safe World for Women specialising in human rights, conflict and development.

Elizabeth is particularly interested in issues relating to children in conflict, especially the underreported issue of child piracy. Seember oversees public procurement monitoring activities among civil society organizations and professional bodies across Nigeria. Seember is also one of 17 sprinters, convened by the World Bank Institute, to author and champion open contracting practices across the globe.

Previously, Seember has been engaged as script writer and has assisted in the production of radio drama and magazine programs for aimed toward stimulating social change. Seember has a personal interest in actively contributing to the deployment and use of appropriate ICT tools that stimulate and support decentralized media; thus, increasing the space for individuals to participate in governance at various levels and is devoted to working in spheres that promote the values of democracy.

She previously worked as a newspaper journalist in Melbourne, Australia. After travelling to Uganda on behalf of Oikocredit earlier in , she met microfinance clients and cooperative members from rural and urban areas. He is a specialist in issues of international migration, refugees and human trafficking. Ogheneruno Okiomah, is a Nigerian-American designer, social-entrepreneur and architectural educator. She specializes in ecosystem design, the nexus of economic development and sustainable design.

Her thesis analyses the transformative role of private sustainability standards in the cocoa value chain. Franziska has broad experience with participatory research on policy effects and sustainable rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa Ghana, Ivory Coast, Senegal, South Africa, and Uganda. Gorik Ooms is a human rights lawyer and a public health scholar.

Since he is an adjunct professor of law at Georgetown University, and since a visiting scholar at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp. He has been involved in several projects towards the realization of the rights of people with disability. Leny van Oyen, a Dutch national, has some 25 years of professional experience, with particular emphasis on private sector development related programme design, management, monitoring and evaluation.

End she started a second career, created her own firm Enterpride Consulting and has carried out a range of private sector and trade development related assignments in Africa and Asia for different clients. She works at a freelance journalist for online media and as a freelance translator for Global Voices. Her main focus is on the Arab world, particularly on the topic of mass media and political and social change in the MENA region.

She has dedicated her univerity career to the study of Arabic to learn which she has travelled to Tunisia and Syria. She is now intern researcher at the European Institute of the Mediterranean Barcelona. Sonja Peteranderl is a freelance journalist who reports from abroad on politics, the economy and digital trends for print and online media such as Spiegel Online, the Tagesspiegel and the Freitag weekly. Together with journalist Julia Jaroschewski, also a foreign correspondent programme scholarship recipient, she has been following developments in the Brazilian favelas in the run-up to the World Cup with the BuzzingCities multimedia project since In they moved to the Rocinha favela in Rio de Janeiro to blog from the favela live.

Together they are also investigating the influence of the internet on the slums. As a Senior Programme Manager at GIZ former InWEnt , Thomas Petermann is responsible for capacity building programmes in the fields of natural resources management, including water development, nature conservation and integrated land use planning. Barbara Ilse is an artist and cultural anthropologist. She was born in Lima, Peru in Growing up surrounded by painting, photography, dancing and theater, artist practice has always been an integral part of her development.

Today she is an independent artist and lecturer in Sao Paulo. Before becoming Deputy Director of the Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate, he was Head of the Regional Policy Division that covers policy analysis on urban development, rural development, regional competitiveness and public governance.

Pezzini has also served as an advisor in the field of economic development, industrial organisation and regional economics in international organisations and on think tanks e.

Pezzini started his career in the government offices of the Emilia-Romagna Region. Alexander works as a filmmaker e. He studied dramatic writing, screenwriting and film production in Berlin and Los Angeles.

He wrote theatre plays e. EU Development Commissioner Andris Piebalgs is an experienced Latvian politician who has occupied key positions in both the national and European political fields. In that capacity, he led the development of a more competitive, sustainable and secure European energy system, which is one of the crowning achievements of the Barroso Commission. In recognition of his leadership in European energy policy, in , the Energy Efficiency Global Forum presented him the Energy Efficiency Visionary Awards for his "outstanding contributions to the advancement of energy efficiency".

Before joining the Commission, Andris Piebalgs pursued a political career, operating strategic ministerial portfolios, and helping Latvia to play its role in the EU. Video statement at YouTube. Nadine Piefer is a Ph. Her research and consultancy work focuses on new development partners, triangular cooperation and energy relations with the BICS. His work focuses on strengthening quality journalism especially in community media. He has also worked for the Deutsche Welle and Deutschlandfunk as an editor and moderator specialising in Latin American issues.

Since he has been working on links between the security and development complexes along with questions of fragility and armed conflicts in the periphery. Together with Ibrahim Bangura he studied at Fourah Bay College in Freetown, Sierra Leone; they were students in the same place, but in different centuries. In this context, she closely cooperates with the World Bank Institute, the Arab Water Council and several bilateral donors, too.

To date his work has primarily been on financial and agricultural projects in West Africa. He often collaborates with local film makers and lay actors. He holds advanced degrees in political science and journalism. In addition to films for DC, he also works on scenic projects, music videos and documentaries, and holds workshops. His research has addressed a range of cross-national issues around corporate social responsibility, not least differences in approaches to CSR between firms from developed and developing countries.

After his Postdoc Studies in Cologne and Strasbourg he inter alia worked at the Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and did his postdoctoral studies at the University of Giessen. He was a spokesperson for the German Ministry of Defence from to Marshall Center in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, and worked as expert on security issues for the daily "Stuttgarter Zeitung".

Universal Love has been promoting ethical fashion and fabrics since and supports young fashion designers by organising small showroom events in Paris called "free markets". Recently, Universal Love has decided to expand the idea of "free markets" by also arranging these events for young artists and musicians.

The Ethical Fashion Show was founded in and is the first international fair dedicated to ethical fashion. Philipp Raasch has been involved in parkour since , and teaches parkour for the ParkourONE interest group. He is a certified educator and studied sport, health and prevention at the German Sport University Cologne.

Franz Josef Radermacher is professor for databases and artificial intelligence at Ulm University. His major fields of research include globalization challenges, learning organisations, risk management, responsibilities of persons and systems, environmentally compatible mobility, sustainable development, and the problem of overpopulation.

Radermacher has been honoured with numerous prizes and awards for his work. Anayetur holds a post graduate degree in communication and journalism from the University of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Danny Ramadan is a Jack-of-all-trades who found his calling in activism, civil justice, journalism and creative writing. As an LGBTQ activist, he has been involved in coordinating online and on-the-ground efforts to support gender and sexual minorities in Egypt, Turkey, Lebanon and his birthplace, Syria.

Each day, he strives to give back to the community that has welcomed and embraced him since his arrival in Canada in September His main research and teaching interests are in the areas of public international law relating to human rights, humanitarian law, refugee law and nuclear law.

He likes working with kids, and especially wants them to enjoy skateboarding as much as he does. Pheakna has been involved in skateboarding since through PSE, and graduated from PSE with a major in construction in He says, "I think that skateboarding is the new sport in Cambodia, and when I skate, my stresses are released".

Carlo holds several patents and has co-authored over publications. He also is a regular contributor to the architecture magazine Domus and the Italian newspaper Il Sole He holds a Master of Economics from Sydney University.

Her research links issues of academic interest with on the ground development concerns focusing on globalization, fair and alternative trade, global social movements, agrarian restructuring, and gendered labor forces.

Raynolds has done extensive field research in Latin America and the Caribbean. She is a lead author and co-editor, with D. Wilkinson, of Fair Trade: The Challenges of Transforming Globalization Routledge: In and she was Ph. From — , Robin was on a Fulbright Scholarship in Barcelona, Spain, on the topic of integrating environmental considerations into urban redevelopment projects.

Moreover, she has worked as course coordinator at the student-led Centre for Environment and Development Studies at Uppsala University. She is particularly interested in processes of transformative learning and the role of art and creativity in work on global sustainability issues. With the oversight of the Senseable City Consortium, she works closely with city administrations and industry members worldwide. Her current research focus is on urban energy use and new fine-grained approaches for the environmental sensing of the city.

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