A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from vegetable fibres such as wood pulp , old rags and other ingredients. Prior to the invention and adoption of the Fourdrinier machine and other types of paper machine that use an endless belt, all paper in a paper mill was made by hand, one sheet at a time, by specialized laborers.
Historical investigations into the origin of the paper mill are complicated by differing definitions and loose terminology from modern authors: Many modern scholars use the term to refer indiscriminately to all kinds of mills , whether powered by humans, by animals or by water.
Their propensity to refer to any ancient paper manufacturing centre as a "mill", without further specifying its exact power drive, has increased the difficulty of identifying the particularly efficient and historically important water-powered type. The use of human and animal powered mills was known to Chinese and Muslim papermakers. However, evidence for water-powered paper mills is elusive among both prior to the 11th century. Scholars have identified paper mills in Abbasid -era Baghdad in — The evidence that waterpower was applied to papermaking at this time is a matter of scholarly debate.
An exhaustive survey of milling in Al-Andalus did not uncover water-powered paper mills, nor do the Spanish books of property distribution Repartimientos after the Christian reconquest refer to any. Burns remains sceptical, given the isolated occurrence of the reference and the prevalence of manual labour in Islamic papermaking elsewhere prior to the 13th century.
Hill notes that paper mills appear in early Christian Catalan documentation from the s, which may imply Islamic origins, but that hard evidence is lacking. Clear evidence of a water-powered paper mill dates to in the Spanish Kingdom of Aragon. The first permanent paper mill north of the Alps was established in Nuremberg by Ulman Stromer in ; it is later depicted in the lavishly illustrated Nuremberg Chronicle. The size of a paper mill prior to the use of industrial machines was described by counting the number of vats it had.
Thus, a "one vat" paper mill had only one vatman, one coucher, and other laborers. By the early 20th century, paper mills sprang up around New England and the rest of the world, due to the high demand for paper. At this time, there were many world leaders of the production of paper; one such was the Brown Company in Berlin, New Hampshire run by William Wentworth Brown.
During the year , the Brown Company cut between 30 and 40 million acres of woodlands on their property,  which extended from La Tuque , Quebec , Canada to West Palm , Florida. It was said to be the only business of its kind in the world and was started in by Tompkins and prospered in spite of the business depression. By the late 20th and early 21st-century, paper mills began to close and the log drives became a dying craft.
Paper mills can be fully integrated mills or nonintegrated mills. Integrated mills consist of a pulp mill and a paper mill on the same site. Such mills receive logs or wood chips and produce paper. The modern paper mill uses large amounts of energy , water , and wood pulp in an efficient and complex series of processes, and control technology to produce a sheet of paper that can be used in diverse ways.
It has also become universal to talk of paper "mills" even of such mills at Fez! All our evidence points to non-hydraulic hand production, however, at springs away from rivers which it could pollute.
European papermaking differed from its precursors in the mechanization of the process and in the application of water power. You cannot risk delegating the assignment to writers who.
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