The word "smog was coined in the early 20th century as a portmanteau of the words smoke and fog to refer to smoky fog, its opacity, and odour. Human-made smog is derived from coal emissions, vehicular emissions, industrial emissions, forest and agricultural fires and photochemical reactions of these emissions. Modern smog, as found for example in Los Angeles, is a type of air pollution derived from vehicular emission from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog.
In certain other cities, such as Delhi , smog severity is often aggravated by stubble burning in neighboring agricultural areas. The atmospheric pollution levels of Los Angeles, Beijing, Delhi, Lahore, Mexico City, Tehran and other cities are increased by inversion that traps pollution close to the ground.
It is usually very highly toxic to humans and can cause severe sickness, shortened life or death. Coinage of the term "smog" is generally attributed to Dr. Des Voeux did a public service in coining a new word for the London fog. Coal fires, used to heat individual buildings or in a power-producing plant, can emit significant clouds of smoke that contributes to smog. Air pollution from this source has been reported in England since the Middle Ages. The emissions from coal combustions are one of the main causes of air pollution in China.
Traffic emissions — such as from trucks , buses , and automobiles — also contribute. The major culprits from transportation sources are carbon monoxide CO ,   nitrogen oxides NO and NO x ,    volatile organic compounds,   sulphur dioxide,  and hydrocarbons. These molecules react with sunlight, heat, ammonia , moisture, and other compounds to form the noxious vapors, ground level ozone , and particles that comprise smog. Photochemical smog is the chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, which leaves airborne particles and ground-level ozone.
A primary pollutant is an air pollutant emitted directly from a source. A secondary pollutant is not directly emitted as such, but forms when other pollutants primary pollutants react in the atmosphere. Examples of a secondary pollutant include ozone, which is formed when hydrocarbons HC and nitrogen oxides NO x combine in the presence of sunlight; nitrogen dioxide NO 2 , which is formed as nitric oxide NO combines with oxygen in the air; and acid rain, which is formed when sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides react with water.
Photochemical smog is therefore considered to be a problem of modern industrialization. It is present in all modern cities, but it is more common in cities with sunny, warm, dry climates and a large number of motor vehicles. The composition and chemical reactions involved in photochemical smog were not understood until the s. In , flavor chemist Arie Haagen-Smit adapted some of his equipment to collect chemicals from polluted air, and identified ozone as a component of Los Angeles smog.
Haagen-Smit went on to discover that nitrous oxides from automotive exhausts and gaseous hydrocarbons from cars and oil refineries, exposed to sunlight, were key ingredients in the formation of ozone and photochemical smog. An erupting volcano can also emit high levels of sulfur dioxide along with a large quantity of particulate matter; two key components to the creation of smog.
However, the smog created as a result of a volcanic eruption is often known as vog to distinguish it as a natural occurrence. The radiocarbon content of some plant life has been linked to the distribution of smog in some areas. For example, the creosote bush in the Los Angeles area has been shown to have an effect on smog distribution that is more than fossil fuel combustion alone.
Smog is a serious problem in many cities and continues to harm human health. Hospital admissions and respiratory deaths often increase during periods when ozone levels are high. An experiment was carried out using intense air pollution similar to that of the Great Smog of London. The results from this experiment concluded that there is a link between early-life pollution exposure that leads to the development of asthma, Proposing the ongoing effect of the Great Smog.
One study, published in Nature magazine , found that smog episodes in the city of Jinan, a large city in eastern China, during —15, were associated with a 5. This study highlights the effect of exposure to air pollution on the rate of mortality in China. In , the Ontario Medical Association announced that smog is responsible for an estimated 9, premature deaths in the province each year. A year American Cancer Society study found that cumulative exposure also increases the likelihood of premature death from a respiratory disease, implying the 8-hour standard may be insufficient.
Researchers at Lancaster University found abundant magnetite nanoparticles in the brain tissue from 37 individuals aged three to years-old who lived in Mexico City and Manchester. A study examining women who had babies with birth defects between and , and women who had healthy babies, found that smog in the San Joaquin Valley area of California was linked to two types of neural tube defects: Smog can form in almost any climate where industries or cities release large amounts of air pollution , such as smoke or gases.
However, it is worse during periods of warmer, sunnier weather when the upper air is warm enough to inhibit vertical circulation. It is especially prevalent in geologic basins encircled by hills or mountains. It often stays for an extended period of time over densely populated cities or urban areas, and can build up to dangerous levels. According to the Canadian Science Smog Assessment published in , smog is responsible for detrimental effects on human and ecosystem health, as well as socioeconomic well-being across the country.
Air pollution in British Columbia is of particular concern, especially in the Fraser Valley, because of a meteorological effect called inversion which decreases air dispersion and leads to smog concentration. For the past few years, cities in northern India have been covered in a thick layer of winter smog. The situation has turned quite drastic in the National Capital, Delhi.
This smog is caused by the collection of Particulate Matter a very fine type of dust and toxic gases in the air due to stagnant movement of air during winters. Delhi is the most polluted  city in the world and according to one estimate, air pollution causes the death of about 10, people in Delhi every year.
Environmentalists have criticised the Delhi government for not doing enough to curb air pollution and to inform people about air quality issues. However, according to several authors, most of these gains have been lost, especially due to stubble burning , rise in market share of diesel cars and a considerable decline in bus ridership.
In , concerns over air pollution were sufficient for Edward I to briefly ban coal fires in London. The " Ballad of Gresham College " the same year describes how the smoke "does our lungs and spirits choke, Our hanging spoil, and rust our iron. Severe episodes of smog continued in the 19th and 20th centuries, mainly in the winter, and were nicknamed "pea-soupers," from the phrase "as thick as pea soup.
Initially a flu epidemic was blamed for the loss of life. In the Clean Air Act started legally enforcing smokeless zones in the capital. There were areas where no soft coal was allowed to be burned in homes or in businesses, only coke , which produces no smoke.
Because of the smokeless zones, reduced levels of sooty particulates eliminated the intense and persistent London smog. The journey started with limited technical experts; but our strive work and dedication has made us reach an impressive success and tech giant for past 18 years in our field.
We have expanded ourselves with 8 branches in pan India and with clients worldwide. Our organization has now enhanced our services in other education fields like Funded Projects, Software Guidance Division, and more. Our dedication has made us expanded ourselves with 8 branches in pan India and clients reaching us from worldwide.
The research proposal should define about the objective of the proposed study, as well as the methods and study design to achieve Research problem identification can be simply described as an issue currently existing which needs to be addressed. Motivation in research methodology refers to why the research scholar is motivated to propose a new method, even after the Under literature survey or related works, eight to fifteen papers are searched based on the base paper provided.
Writing or presenting white paper guidance is one of the hardest task. To make a record as to be viewed as the impressive paper Publication may be a precise service that prompts a good arrangement of support offerings. Initially only 15 students were admitted in this course. Today the number of seats has increased to Lectures through power point presentation and demonstrations are some of the methods adopted by the faculty to make the teaching - learning process more interesting and purposeful.
The Department enjoys top reputation in the College and also in the University with very dedicated Faculty members who are highly qualified in their respective fields of specialization. Every year we draw quality students from almost all over the country.
Our students have made us proud over the years by their consistent excellent results and invariably occupying the top slots in the university results. The Department also started with the M. The Course offers for specialization in Ecology and Endocrinology.
The department also has a well stocked museum with innumerable animal specimens, slides, illustrative charts, etc. The Department provides a conducive atmosphere for all round development and the overall personality development of the students and prepares them to excel in academics and extra-curricular activities as well as molding them into goods citizens.
To make the students aware of ecological and environment issues, the department organizes a zoological excursion every year and regular field trips in which students are accompanied by teaching and non teaching staff. The faculty members also actively take part in various seminars, symposia, etc. The department also regularly organize seminars and workshops and arrange lectures by eminent scholars to increase the creative skills of the students.
Our alumni are presently well placed in the different walks of the life in India and abroad. The Department is also committed to quality based advanced research with stress on fundamental research in its pursuit of advancement of knowledge in Science and technology. The department has its faculty highly qualified and experienced scientists devoted to original and path breaking research. SanjuktaMondal Parui , Dr. Two Project Fellows are working for their Ph.
Two students have already been awarded their Ph. Sanjukta Mondal Parui with a third student already registered for Ph. Mathematics department, one of the founder departments of the College was established in for Intermediate students under the guidance of Sm.
Later with the introduction of undergraduate courses in the College, Mathematics was offered to the students at Pass course level. The department then started teaching Honours Course from under the able guidance of Sm. Since then most of the students studying Mathematics Honours have completed this course with flying colours, some meritorious ones securing University rank, even one student of this department got highest marks among all students completing Bachelor course in all streams of science, arts and commerce of University of Calcutta in a recent year.
Finally the department started teaching its Post Graduate Course from with academic autonomy under University of Calcutta, with constant encouragement and support from then Principal Dr. Sanghamitra Mukherjee, previously a faculty of this department. Well known and reputed teachers have delivered lectures and taught for the PG course.
So it may be concluded that since its inception, the department has never looked back- but progressed steadily to be what it is today! Economics as a subject was introduced in Lady Brabourne College in , the year in which the college was founded. The Department maintains a very high demand ratio every year. One of the strengths of the Department is the consistently excellent result of the students with a high percentage securing first class and a good number of rank holders.
A few students even go for higher education to renowned foreign institutes. Many of our ex-students are currently pursuing PhD programmes in India and abroad. Others get absorbed in high quality jobs. The faculty members are actively engaged in research and publishing papers in peer reviewed state-level, national and international journals along with teaching.
During and June , the faculty members have completed two Minor Research Projects sponsored by UGC and published 6 papers in peer reviewed state-level, 2 in national and 5 in international journals and edited books. The teachers instill interest in research among students and the latter enthusiastically participate in various inter-college paper presentation competitions at state and national level winning appreciation. The Departmental journal IDEEN, containing papers of the students compiled and edited by the faculty members are published regularly.
Keeping in view that education is not limited to class room lectures and it includes relating text books with real world, the Department very often organizes Industry Visits and Excursions.
In , the excursion to Mandarmani was conducted to experience and understand the coastal regions of Bengal and the state of the local economy. In , the visit to Neogi technologies and Research, a MSME in Rajpur, South 24 Parganas provided the students the exposure in perceiving the working environment and the live problems encountered in the working of an industrial entity.
The reports of Excursion and industry Visit were published. Seminars and workshops are organised regularly for the enrichment of the students and the faculty.
The two day Conference had a galaxy of eminent economists as speakers like Prof. Bezbaruah, Gauhati University, Prof.
Zainul Abedin, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh etc. Since , the departmental seminars were organised on Planning strategies in India during the Pre-reform period, Process of capital budgeting in a business firm, Demonetisation in India and GST in India with Dr.
Department of Geography , Lady Brabourne College: Department of Geography in Lady Brabourne College enjoys a heritage status in terms of its academic and research activities. Since its inception the department has produced talented students who held First positions as well as ranks in Calcutta University for several decades. The department flourished under the able guidance of late Professor Binapani Mukherjee and later Professor Maya Dutta.
AnjanaGhose the then Head of the Department smoothly guided the department under several odds through a period of transition. Prof Jayasree Roy Chowdhury, Present Director of Public Instructions was the student of the department and was the teaching faculty and Head of the department of Geography.
All the Teaching faculties of the department are engaged in research work along with their academic activities. Five teaching faculty members out of seven are PhD degree holders in the department. One teaching faculty has submitted her thesis for PhD degree in The department continues to flourish with student strength of one hundred and fifty-four and thirty three research scholars.
Advanced Research Centre in Human Geography: The ARC has organized a lot of Seminars and workshopssince its inception. Under the supervision of Prof SaswatiMookherjeefour Research scholars, attached with the department of Geography have been awarded PhD degree from the University of Calcutta between and Name of the PhD awardees of the department of Geography are: Soma De 2 Dr. Anindita Das Majumdar 3 Dr.
Chakraborty has attached as teaching faculty in the department of Geography, Presidency University. The department was established in the year , starting with B.
General course in Statistics. Sc Honours course in Statistics has been introduced from The primary objective of this department of excellence is to impart both basic and advanced quality education in Statistics in under-graduate level B. There are currently four full time faculties in the department. The department is equipped by a computer lab with latest statistical software and packages, well-stocked departmental library and class rooms with ICT facility.
The steady and continuous flow of meritorious and persevering students has helped this department to grow as prominent center of teaching and learning Statistics. In past years students of this department have secured university ranks in B. The department aspires for students to pursue higher studies as well as persuades them to practice Statistics in different organizations; both Government and non Government, as analysts Statisticians. Students are encouraged to participate in different workshops on both statistics and Mathematics in different colleges and Institutions.
For last two years students of this department have been participating in MTUSS, the advanced theoretical statistics and mathematics workshop, jointly organized by National Board of Higher Mathematics and University of Calcutta.
Also disseminating all-round education, this department has organized several lectures and work-shops in Big Data Analytics and Statistical Software like R and Minitab which were delivered by eminent professor of University of Calcutta and industry resource person for preparing the students in their prospective career as statistician. Keeping in mind the goal of nurturing the future socially responsible citizen, it has also arranged a daylong seminar on Gender Sensitization by calling upon trans-gendered people in Resource persons from trans-gendered community and representative from Sappho for Equality were present in this seminar.
The Department of Computer Science was established in the year It started off with a General Course in Computer Science which is continuing till date. It is at present running with two part time lecturers. Total number of seats allotted for the subject was initially Over the years, the interest for the subject has led to a larger number of students opting for the subject. To encourage their proficiency and interest in the subject the College has introduced a Prize for best performance of the student at the College test.
Shikha Paul and Smt Sulagna Chakraborty to facilitate the students in having a better perception of the Subject. The Special lectures were as follows: A Special Lecture was delivered by Dr. A Special Lecture was delivered by Smt.
The library is located on the first floor of the main college building. Now, the library is enriched with a collection of more than 1,00, printed books and journals approx and various kinds of electronic documents. The library possesses various old and rare documents. Management of the library: Lady Brabourne College Library has a library committee with librarians and faculty members of different subjects for day to day management and smooth functioning of the library activities.
Facilities of the Library: Old students of the college doing postgraduate courses elsewhere are allowed to use the library only for reference purposes with special permission from the Principal. Apart from the general library, each department has a seminar library, where the students can access at the discretion of the departmental faculties.
Now, our library is going to implement RFID system in the year To preserve the library documents for future use, binding works are also done every year. Professor Siuli Sarkar M. Gopa Datta Bhaumik M. Indrani Choudhuri Dutt M. Phil JU Assistant Professor. The students of the dept. The cultural function of the reunion day and celebration of the foundation day of the college usually being with the Mangalacharana, which is performed by the students of the Sanskrit dept. Students take active part in the entire seminar organized by department.
In the dept. Students are regularly involved in NSS program. In one student of this dept. Sutapa Ray MA, B. Samapti Garai MA, Ph. D BU Assistant Professor. D CU Assistant Professor. A in Sanskrit J. Drama, Ghazal, Debate and Recitation Urdu department has always presented very attractive drama. The drama "Sapno ka saudagar" was presented during Annual function celebration.
It was a great success and the dept won prize for it. The students always win prizes in college recitation, which is organized each by the college. Each year students win medal in college sports. Students Excursion It is worthwhile to note that during the last 3 years the students of the Department have gone for excursion to Eco Park and always maintained a very good discipline.
This year they have visited Science City to learn about latest scientific developments. Syeda Shariqatul Moula Alquadri M.
Kakoli Sinha Ray M. Nivedita Patra Mukhopadhyay M. Department of Political Science. Lhamu Tshering Bhutia M.
Phil CU Assistant Professor. Departmental Research Research Scholars. Associate Professor and Head. Ajanta Bhowal Acharyya M. Srabani Chakraborty nee Sarkar M. Chhanda Basu Chaudhuri M. Mostafizur Rahman Associate Professor. Uttara Das Part Time.
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